Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) bagasse (SCB) is a biomass of agricultural waste obtained from sugarcane processing that has been found in abundance globally. Due to its abundance in nature, researchers have been harnessing this biomass for numerous applications such as in energy and environmental sustainability. However, before it could be optimally utilised, it has to be pre-treated using available methods. Different pre-treatment methods were reviewed for SCB, both alkaline and alkali–acid process reveal efficient and successful approaches for obtaining higher glucose production from hydrolysis. Procedures for hydrolysis were evaluated, and results indicate that pre-treated SCB was susceptible to acid and enzymatic hydrolysis as > 80% glucose yield was obtained in both cases. The SCB could achieve a bio-ethanol (a biofuel) yield of > 0.2 g/g at optimal conditions and xylitol (a bio-product) yield at > 0.4 g/g in most cases. Thermochemical processing of SCB also gave excellent biofuel yields. The plethora of products obtained in this regard have been catalogued and elucidated extensively. As found in this study, the SCB could be used in diverse applications such as adsorbent, ion exchange resin, briquettes, ceramics, concrete, cement and polymer composites. Consequently, the SCB is a biomass with great potential to meet global energy demand and encourage environmental sustainability.
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